HSC English First Paper | Unit: 6, Lesson: 1 | Path to Higher Education | "An Eastern University" by Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore was not only an outstanding poet but also a very committed educator. He has written extensively in both Bengali and English about his philosophy of education as well as his educational experiments and his desire to transform teaching and learning in Bengal. Here is an example of his thinking about education and desire to implement it in his institution.

Path to Higher Education | "An Eastern University" by Rabindranath Tagore

1. Warm up activities
Rabindranath Tagore set up a university with the expectation that it would be truly eastern and reflect the ideals of education that he cherished and found in the system of education once practiced in the Indian subcontinent. Find out the name and other details of the university from the net and talk to the class for 5 minutes about it.

□ Did Tagore attend any university in India or abroad? Discuss in a group.
□ What is your idea of the university? Write a page on the topic.
2. Read the following excerpts from Tagore's essay and answer the questions that follow:
Universities should never be made into mechanical organizations for collecting and distributing knowledge. Through them the people should offer their intellectual hospitality, their wealth of mind to others, and earn their proud right in return to receive gifts from the rest of the world. But in the whole length and breadth of India there is not a single University established in the modern time where a foreign or an Indian student can properly be acquainted with the best products of the Indian mind. For that we have to cross the sea, and knock at the doors of France and Germany. Educational institutions in our country are India's alms-bowl of knowledge; they lower our intellectual self-respect; they encourage us to make a foolish display of decorations composed of borrowed feathers ....
Man's intellect has a natural pride in its own aristocracy, which is the pride of its culture. Culture only acknowledges the excellence whose criticism is in its inner perfection, not in any external success.

When this pride succumbs to some compulsion of necessity or lure of material advantage, it brings humiliation to the intellectual man. Modern India, through her very education, has been made to suffer this humiliation. Once she herself provided her children with a culture which was the product of her own ages of thought and creation. But it has been thrust aside, and we are made to tread the mill of passing examinations, not for learning anything, but for notifying that we are qualified for employments under organisations conducted in English. Our educated community is not a cultured community, but a community of qualified candidates. Meanwhile the proportion of possible employments to the number of claimants has gradually been growing narrower, and the consequent disaffection has been widespread. At last the very authorities who are responsible for this are blaming their victims. Such is the perversity of human nature. It bears its worst grudge against those it has injured ....

In the Bengali language there is a modern maxim which can be translated, 'He who learns to read and write rides in a carriage and pair.' In English there is a similar proverb, 'Knowledge is power.1 It is an offer of a prospective bribe to the student, a promise of an ulterior reward which is more important than knowledge itself. . . .
Unfortunately, our very education has been successful in depriving us of our real initiative and our courage of thought. The training we get in our schools has the constant implication in it that it is not for us to produce but to borrow. And we are casting about to borrow our educational plans from European institutions. The trampled plants of Indian corn are dreaming of recouping their harvest from the neighbouring wheat fields. To change the figure, we forget that, for proficiency in walking, it is better to train the muscles of our own legs than to strut upon wooden ones of foreign make, although they clatter and cause more surprise at our skill in using them than if they were living and real.

But when we go to borrow help from a foreign neighbourhood we overlook the fact... that among the Europeans the living spirit of the University is widely spread in their society, their parliament, their literature, and the numerous activities of their corporate life. In all these functions they are in perpetual touch with the great personality of the land which is creative and heroic in its constant acts of self-expression and self-sacrifice. They have their thoughts published in their books as well as through the medium of living men who think those thoughts, and who criticise, compare and disseminate them. Some at least of the drawbacks of their academic education are redeemed by the living energy of the intellectual personality pervading their social organism. It is like the stagnant reservoir of water which finds its purification in the showers of rain to which it keeps itself open. But, to our misfortune, we have in India all the furniture of the European University except the human teacher....

A most important truth, which we are apt to forget, is that a teacher can never truly teach unless he is still learning himself. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. The teacher who has come to the end of his subject, who has no living traffic with his knowledge, but merely repeats his lessons to his students, can only load their minds; he cannot quicken them. Truth not only must inform but inspire. If the inspiration dies out, and the information only accumulates, then truth loses its infinity. The greater part of our learning in the schools has been waste because, for most of our teachers, their subjects are like dead specimens of once living things, with which they have a learned acquaintance, but no communication of life and love.

The educational institution, therefore, which I have in mind has primarily for its object the constant pursuit of truth, from which the imparting of truth naturally follows. It must not be a dead cage in which living minds are fed with food artificially prepared. It should be an open house, in which students and teachers are at one. They must live their complete life together, dominated by a common aspiration for truth and a need of sharing all the delights of culture. In former days the great master-craftsmen had students in their workshops where they co-operated in shaping things to perfection. That was the place where knowledge could become living - that knowledge which not only has its substance and law, but its atmosphere subtly informed by a creative personality. For intellectual knowledge also has its aspect of creative art, in which the man who explores truth expresses something which is human in him - his enthusiasm, his courage, his sacrifice, his honesty, and his skill. In merely academicals teaching we find subjects, but not the man who pursues the subjects; therefore, the vital part of education remains incomplete.

3. Why does Tagore criticize the Indian universities of his time?
4. What, according to Tagore, should a university do?
5. Why, do you think 'Modern India,' (Tagore's phrase) abandoned its traditional system of education? What have been the consequences?
6. Can you find out the equivalent of the maxim 'He who learns to read and write rides in a carriage and pair' in Bengali? Do you agree to what the maxim means?
7. Do you agree with Tagore when he says that the training we get in our schools makes us believe that we must borrow rather than produce?
8. Who is Tagore's ideal teacher?
9. What positive features of European universities does Tagore highlight in the essay?
10. Explain the following ideas in your own words:
a. Knowledge is power
b. It is better to train the muscles of our own legs than to strut upon wooden ones of foreign make
c. A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame
d. Intellectual knowledge also has its aspect of creative art
e. Our educated community is not a cultured community, but a community of qualified candidates
11. What do the following words/terms mean?
a. hospitality
b. borrowed feathers
c. humiliation
d. prospective
e. initiative
f. trampled
g. recoup
h. perpetual
i. disseminates
12. Which of the following statements is true and which one false in the context of the essay? Write T or F beside the statements to indicate your answer.
a. Tagore believes that Indian universities do not collect and distribute knowledge.
b. Educational institutions in India teach their students to borrow and not produce.
c. Culture is concerned with excellence which is external.
d. Our educated community is a cultured community.
e. European universities encourage self-expression and self-sacrifice.
f. A teacher should have a living traffic with knowledge.
g. Educational institutions should constantly pursue truth.
13. What parts of speech are these words?
Inner, gradually, responsible, perversity, worst, intellectual, express, skill

HSC English First Paper | Unit: 5, Lesson: 5 | Adolescence | Amazing Children and Teens Who Have Changed the World

1. Warm up activity:
□ Find examples of young people in our country who have done something exceptional like the boy who stopped a train running on a track with missing fishplates and speak to your friends about them.

□ Now share the following introduction with a friend.
It's an adults' world They make the decisions, create the laws, make the money, and have all of the freedoms. But there have been exceptions. Take for example, these child visionaries— boys and girls who have changed oar world through their good actions or examples. Some have mobilized millions for a good cause; others have moved us simply by their generous and hopeful view of humanity. Let's read about some of these amazing young people.

2. Read the text and answer the questions that follow:
Dylan Mahalingam
Dylan Mahalingam

At the age of nine, Dylan Mahalingam became the co-founder of Lil' MDGs, a nonprofit international development and youth empowerment organization. Lil' MDGs' mission is to use the power of the digital media to engage children in the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). His organization has mobilized more than 3 million children around the globe to raise 780,000 US dollars for tsunami relief and more than 10 million dollars for hurricane relief. He has built a dormitory in Tibet, a mobile hospital in India, and a school playground serving AIDS orphans in Uganda. Dylan is a youth speaker for the United Nations.

Alexandra 'Alex' Scott
Alexandra 'Alex' Scott

Alexandra 'Alex* Scott was born in Connecticut in 1996, and was diagnosed with neuro blastula, a type of childhood cancer, shortly before she turned one. In 2000, just after turning four, she informed her mother that she wanted to start a lemonade stand to raise money for doctors to help children. Her first lemonade stands raised 2,000 dollars and led to the creation of the Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation.   Alex   continued her   lemonade stands

throughout her life, ultimately raising over one million dollars toward cancer research. She passed away in August 2004 at the age of eight Today, Alex's Lemonade Stand sponsors a national fundraising weekend in the United States which is pojwlariy known as Lemonade Days. Each year, as many as 10,000 volunteers at more than 2,000 Alex's Lemonade Stands make a difference tor child with cancer.

Ryan Hreljac
Ryan Hreljac

In 1998, six-year old Ryan Hreljac was shocked to learn that children in Africa had to walk many kilometers every day just to fetch water. Ryan decided he needed to build a well for a village in Africa. By doing household chores and public speaking on clean water issues, Ryan raised enough money with which his first well was built in 1999 at the Angolo Primary School in a northern Ugandan village. Ryan's determination led to Ryan's Well Foundation, which has completed 667 projects in 16 countries, bringing access to clean water and sanitation to more than 714,000 people.

Katie Stagliano
Katie Stagliano

In 2008, 9-year old Katie Stagliano brought a tiny cabbage seedling home from school. As she cared for her cabbage, it grew to 40 pounds. Katie donated her cabbage to a soup kitchen where it helped to feed more than 275 people. Moved by the experience of seeing how many people could benefit from the donation of fresh produce to soup kitchens, Katie decided to start vegetable gardens and donate the harvest to help feed people in need. Today, Katie's Krops donates thousands of pounds of fresh produce from numerous gardens to organizations that help people in need.

Anne Frank
Anne Frank

Anne Frank is perhaps the most well-known victim of the Nazi Holocaust of World War 1L Anne, bom on 12 June 1929, was given a diary at the age of 15, in which she chronicled her life from 1942 to 1944. During this time, Anne spent two years in hiding with her

family in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam in a soxet annex with four other Jews. Betrayed and discovered in 1944, Anne was sent to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where she died of typhus in 1945. Anne's father, Otto Frank, was the only occupant of the sextet annex to survive the war. In 1947, he published Anne's diary as The Diary of a Young Girl. Anne's account of her internment, as well as he deep belief in humanity has become one of the world's most widely read books.

3. Answer the following questions:
a. What are some examples of the humanitarian services provided by Lil' MDGi?
b. Why did Alexandra Scott want to start a lemonade stand when she was only four?
c What compelled Ryan Hreljac to make wells for the people in Africa?
d. How did Katie Stagliano raise money to help people?
e. When was The Diary of a Young Girl published?

4. Discuss the following questions in pairs:
a. Which of die five children/teen activists inspired you the moat? Why?
b. Do you think you have to wait to be an adult to help people who are in need?
c. Do you know any young boy/girl who has given exceptional humanitarian
services to the people in your society/community/country? How old is s/he?
d. What could be some possible activities that you can start right now to help poor
or sick people in your area?

5. Find the meaning of the following words ud make sentences with them:
a. empowerment
b. mobilize
c fundraising
d. betray
e. grace
f. holocaust

6. Find 5 adjectives in the text and make sentences with them.

7. Match the words/phrases in column A with their meanings in column B in the table below:

column A
column B

by removing waste, trash and garbage
lemonade (noun)
to describe a scries of events in the order that they happened
determination (noun)
agricultural products, especially fresh fruits and vegetables
sanitation (noun)
imprisonment of large groups without any legal process
fresh produce (noun phrase)
to use (a quality or advantage) to obtain a desired effect or result
chronicle (verb)
something that serves as tangible proof or evidence
concentration camp (noun phrase)
a quality that makes you continue trying to do or achieve something that is difficult
internment (noun)
a drink made oflemon juice, water, and sugar
testament (noun)
a type of prison where targe numbers of people who are not soldiers are kept during a war and arc usually forced to live in harsh conditions


HSC English First Paper | Unit: 5, Lesson: 4 | Adolescence | The Story of Shilpi

1. Warm up activity:
□ Think about what the adverse effects of child marriage can be and write a 200 word passage on the topic.
□ Imagine that a child marriage has been arranged in your neighbourhood. Discuss with your friends how you would convince the parents of the girl to cancel the marriage.

2. Read the text and answer the questions that follow:
Shilpi was only 15 years old when she married Rashid in 2008. Marrying off daughters at an early age is a standard practice for many families living in rural Bangladesh. After her wedding, Shilpi joined a local empowerment group that provides adolescent girls with the tools needed to gradually change cultural practices, particularly those pertaining to early marriage and pregnancy.
The Story of Shilpi
The group's activities include discussions on how to most effectively change behaviour related to reproductive health as well as one-on-one counselling. It also offers peer-to-peer support and life skills training that help adolescents say no to early marriage. The empowerment group is one of more than 10,000 groups supported by some local Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) working all over Bangladesh. These NGOs work through Canada's Adolescent Reproductive Health Project which also aims to increase access to quality health services for adolescents. During one of the group sessions, Shilpi came to understand the potentially harmful effects of early marriage and pregnancy.

While maternal mortality in Bangladesh has declined by nearly 40 percent since 2001, the rate remains high with 194 maternal deaths per 100,000, live births in 2010-dropping from 322 in 2001 with a projected decrease to 143 by 2015. Girls who get pregnant are at risk of serious health complications. These include dangerous

hemorrhage and fistula, a painful internal injury caused by obstructed childbirth that commonly leads to serious maternal morbidities and social exclusion.

When Shilpi heard about those risks, she invited her husband, Rashid, to discuss pregnancy with a counsellor. After hearing about the risks, Rashid agreed to delay having children for five years despite pressures from his parents and neighbours to produce an offspring. Together, the couple met with a female health care provider, who informed them about the various family planning options available.

Shilpi's mother-in-law and neighbours continued to pressurize the newlyweds. Deeply rooted cultural practices and traditions caused a rift between Shilpi and Rashid and their extended family, some of whose members insulted and criticized the couple. Unable to convince their close relatives of the risks, Shilpi and Rashid returned to the counsellor. They took the help of a parent peer who has been trained to speak to other parents about adolescent issues. Shilpi's mother-in-law and neighbours eventually came to understand the harmful effects of early pregnancy on mother and child.

Today, the village no longer pressurizes the couple; their parents and neighbours now support them and speak out against early marriage and pregnancy.

3. Discuss the following questions in pairs:
a. Why did Shilpi decide to delay her pregnancy?
b. How were Shilpi and her husband able to handle the pressure for having children?
c. What are the various health-related services that couples like Shilpi and Rashid need?
d. Is there any empowerment group working in your area? If yes, what do they do?
e. As an adolescent boy/girl, what peer support can you provide to boys and girls in your locality who have already married?

4. The graph below shows the percentage of 15-19 and 20-24-year-old married women in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh who have experienced physical or sexual violence. What do you think arc the reasons for violence against women? Discuss the graph in small groups.
The Story of Shilpi

5. Complete the passage below that describes the graph. Use the words given in the below:

evident                in contrast          than                     older
victims                 alarming             compared to      with

The graph illustrates the percentage of married women aged 15-19 and 20-24 who have experienced physical or sexual violence. In general, it is seen from the graph that women of both age groups arc more likely to be victims of physical violence (a)-------sexual violence. The graph shows that 39.8 % of rural married adolescents (aged 15-19) and 35.3 % of urban adolescents have experienced some form of physical violence. On the other hand, 11.8% and 16.8% respectively of the urban age groups of 15-19 and 20-24 have been (b)--------of sexual violence. According to the graph, 11.8% and 16.8% married women in urban areas in the age groups of 15-19 and 20-24 respectively have experienced sexual violence (c)--------22.2% and 20.2% married women in rural areas, It is also (d)-------from the graph that young women aged 20-24 are more likely to have experienced physical violence than adolescents aged 15-19. (e)-------, younger women in rural areas are somewhat more likely to have experience of sexual violence than (f)------women. Overall, the graph shows an (g)-------picture of rural and urban adolescents and young becoming victims of violence.

6. Adolescent health quiz:
Take the quiz to see how healthy you are. Tick each item that is true for you. Each tick mark is worth 1 point. Add up the points and check your score.

Life at home
□ You have the opportunity to make decisions that are important to you.
□ You can talk to caring and responsible adults about important things.
□ You feel safe at home.
□ You understand and follow the rules your parents have set for you.

Life at College
□ You do well in college and ask for help when you need it.
□ You plan to do well in your HSC examination.
□ You can complete your homework/college tasks on your own.

Making good choices
□ Your friends do not use or offer you cigarettes, alcohol or drugs.
□ You have friends who are trustworthy.
□ You are active in college sports, cultural clubs and voluntary organizations.

Healthy lifestyle
□ You have 3 healthy meals each day including breakfast.
□ You take 3 calcium rich food items, such as milk or yogurt everyday.
□ You eat enough fruit and vegetables daily.
□ You avoid eating food high in fat, sugar and salt most days of the week.
□ You watch 2 hours of TV or less every day.
□ You exercise or play sports daily.

Bonus points
□ You volunteer in your community to help others.
□ You do things to help out at home.

Your total score is...........           
□ If your total score is 6 or less, you really need to think about changing yourself.
□ If your total score is 7-10, you still need to work toward a healthier you.
□ If your total score is 11 or higher, you have a healthy life. Keep it up)
[Source: Hnghl future: hllp^'www.m^duloc.cuin'l.inkt 'lick fuqn.':iiitit»UL—I ,.I X ,*X981, ID&tabid-W]

7. If your score is II or higher, explain how important the family is in shaping one's future.

8. If your score Is less than 10, write a page discussing how you think you can change your situation for the better.

9. Find out the meaning of the following words and w rite sentences using them:
a. empowerment
b. reproductive
c. counselling
d. peer
c. potential
f. hemorrhage
g. obstructed
h. morbidity
i. option
j. advocate


HSC English First Paper | Unit: 5, Lesson: 3 | Adolescence | Why Does a Child Hate School?

Why Does a Child Hate School
Children's right to education also implies that the school they go to will have a pleasant and learning-friendly environment where everyone will have an enjoyable time. Teachers will be kind, caring and supportive and children will feel relaxed. No harsh words will be spoken to them and special care will be taken of children with learning disabilities.

That, unfortunately is not the general picture in our schools. The system of education in our part of the world does not allow children much freedom, and classrooms look more like cages where they are pent up for hours. Rabindranath Tagore (read his "An Eastern University" in Unit Six) found it unacceptable; so did William Blake (1757-1857), an English poet and painter, whose favourite subjects included children. In his poem "The School Boy" Blake writes about a young boy who is unhappy with his school where dour-faced teachers give joyless leassons. He would rather like to be outdoors and enjoy the summer day. He pleads with his parents to rescue him from the drudgery of school.

1. Warm up activities:
□ Think about your own school days. Did you feel like the boy in the poem or did you have a different experience? Discuss in a group.
□ Ask your friends to talk about their experiences in school and see where you are similar, and where different.
□ Give a 5 minute lecture in class on what you consider to be an ideal learning environment in school.

2. Now read the poem and answer the questions that follow:

'The Schoolboy' by William Blake

I love to rise in a summer morn,
When the birds sing on every tree;
The distant huntsman winds his horn,
And the skylark sings with me:
O what sweet company!

But to go to school in a summer morn,
O it drives all joy away!
Under a cruel eye outworn,
The little ones spend the day
In sighing and dismay.

Ah then at times I drooping sit,
And spend many an anxious hour;
Nor in my book can I take delight,
Nor sit in learning's bower,
Worn through with the dreary shower.

How can the bird that is born for joy
Sit in a cage and sing?
How can a child, when fears annoy,
But droop his tender wing,
And forget his youthful spring!

O father and mother if buds are nipped,
And blossoms blown away;
And if the tender plants are stripped
Of their joy in the springing day,
By sorrow and care's dismay, -

How shall the summer arise in joy,
Or the summer fruits appear?
Or how shall we gather what griefs destroy,
Or bless the mellowing year,
When the blasts of winter appear?

3. The poem begins by invoking a bright summer morning and ends with a 'blast of winter/ What is the significance of this shift?
4. The poem moves between innocence (first stanza) and loss of innocence (the remaining stanzas). What is behind the loss?
5. What does the boy do in school? How does he endure his joyless lessons?
6. What does 'a cruel eye outworn' refer to? What does 'dreary shower' refer to?
7. What request does the boy make to his parents?
8. What is the mood of the poem?
9. Find out the meaning of the following phrases:
a. sweet company    
b. drooping sit      
c. learning's bower
d. fears annoy  
e. buds are nipped
f. mellowing year

10. A metaphor is a comparison of one thing to another without the use of 'like' or 'as' to provide a clearer description. An example from the poem is 'learning's bower' which actually means a garden where a child can learn happily. Find a couple of other metaphors from the poem.

11. What is the meaning of the following words:
a. huntsman    
b. dismay    
c. dreary
d. annoy          
e. blast

12. Write a 150-200 word passage on the importance of joyful learning in

HSC English First Paper | Unit: 5, Lesson: 2 | Adolescence | Adolescence and Some (Related) Problems in Bangladesh

1. Warm up activity;
* Look at the pictures and discuss the following questions in pairs.
Adolescence and Some (Related) Problems in Bangladesh

a. What does each of these photographs show?
b. What are some typical health problems affecting adolescent boys and girls?
c. Who, do you think, are more vulnerable to adolescent health problems-boys or girls? Why?
d. Why should all of us say 'No' to habit-forming drugs of every kind?

2. Now read about some typical health problems experienced by adolescent girls and boys in Bangladesh.

i. Adolescents constitute a nation's core resource for national renewal and growth. Adolescence is a period in life when transition from childhood to adulthood takes place and behaviours and life styles are shaped. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), adolescence is the period which shapes the future of girls' and boys' lives. There are 28 million adolescents in Bangladesh; 13.7 million of them are girls and 14.3 million boys.

ii. The situation of adolescent girls in Bangladesh is characterised by inequality and subordination within the family and society. This inequality leads to widespread practice of child marriage, marginalization in exclusion from health, education and economic opportunities, and vulnerability to violence and sexual abuse.

Adolescence and Some (Related) Problems in Bangladesh

iii. In Bangladesh, the legal age of marriage is 18 for girls and 21 for boys. However, 33 percent of adolescent girls are married before the age of 15 and 60 percent become mothers by the age of 19. Research finds that adolescents with higher level of education and from more affluent families tend to marry at a later age. Boys, however, become ready for marriage only after several years of adolescence and young adulthood.

Adolescence and Some (Related) Problems in Bangladesh

iv. When a girl gets married, she usually drops out of school and begins full-time work, in her in-laws' household. In the in-laws house, she is marginalized. She becomes vulnerable to all forms of abuse, including dowry-related violence. In Bangladesh, it is still common for a bride's family to pay dowry, despite the practice being illegal. Dowry demands can also continue after the wedding. For an adolescent bride, even if her in-laws are supportive, there are greater health risks in terms of pregnancy and child birth. The majority of adolescent brides and their families are uninformed or insufficiently informed about reproductive health and contraception. The maternal mortality rate for adolescents is double the national rate.

v. When adolescent girls are pulled out of school, either for marriage or work, they often lose their mobility, their friends and social status. The lack of mobility among adolescent girls also curtails their economic and non-formal educational opportunities. Moreover, they lack information about health issues. According to a study, only about three in five adolescents have even heard of HIV. It is also reported that more than 50 percent of adolescent girls are undernourished and suffer from anemia. Adolescent fertility is also high in Bangladesh. The contribution of the adolescent fertility rate to the total fertility rate increased from 20.3% in 1993 to 24.4% in 2007. Moreover, neonatal mortality is another concern for younger mothers.

Adolescence and Some (Related) Problems in Bangladesh

vi. While the situation for adolescent boys is somewhat better, many are vulnerable and lack the power to make decisions about their own lives. Many boys who are unable to go to school, or are unemployed, remain unaware of social or health issues. They are at considerable risk of being drawn into criminal activities. They are also more likely to get exposed to drugs and alcohol.

1. Health Profile of Adolescents and Youth in Bangladesh, Government of Bangladesh, 2007, available at: http ^/bamsearo. who. m t/LinkFUcs/Publicati(»_Hcalft_Pro pd£
2. Unite for Children, UNICEF, Adolescent Empowerment Project in Bangladesh, 2009, available at
http://www.unicef.org./bangladcsh/Adolcseent Empowerment %28KA%29.pdf

3. Read the following statements and decide if they are true or false. If a statement is false, correct it.
a. In Bangladesh there are more adolescent boys than adolescent girls.
b. Many girls in Bangladesh get married before they reach the legal age for marriage.
c. A bride's family has to pay dowry only before the wedding.
d. More than half of Bangladeshi adolescent girls cannot meet their dietary needs.
e. Many adolescent boys in Bangladesh are likely to be involved in various forms of criminal offence.

4. Column A of the following table lists some causes while Column B lists some effects. Match the causes with the effects and join them to make sentences using 'as', 'since' or 'because'.

Column A: Causes
Column B: Effects
I. Some adolescent girls have higher level of education.
U. Boys are usually more concerned about their financial independence.
iii. Many girls drop out of school after marriage.
Iv. Married girls have no status and bargaining power in their in-laws' house.
v.  Most adolescent brides have no or
little knowledge of reproductive
health and contraception.
vi. Many   adolescent   boys arc
unemployed and unaware of many
social or health issues.
a. This leads to increased mortality
rates   among adolescent brides
during childbirth.
b. They have to work all day long at
their in-laws' household.
c. They gel married several years after
adolescence and young adulthood.
d. They become victims of domestic
e. They have a tendency of getting
married at a later age.
f.  They have the risks of getting
involved  in  criminal activities,
including drug abuse.

5. Find out the meanings of the words given below and make sentences with them:
a.  dowry
b.         mobility
c contraception d. undernourished
c.          vulnerable

6. The above text has six paragraphs (i-vi). Choose the most suitable headings for the paragraphs from the list of headings below. There are more headings in the box than the paragraphs, so you will not use all of them.

               List of headings
1. Reasons for adolescent fertility
2. Concerted efforts to address adolescents' needs
3. Significance of adolescent population
4. A process of disempowerment of women
5. The curse of early marriage
6. Consequences of taking drugs
7. Unfortunate state of adolescent girls
8. Boys are not free from risks
9. Violence within the family